Weathering and erosion essay

Short essay on the Process of, weathering


weathering and erosion essay

Weathering and Erosion Essay - 1736 Words - studyMode

It marks the first day of the year in numerous calendars, and is tied to cosmological creation stories. I suspect that these traditions go back to göbekli tepe times, and even earlier. The Orion-taurus region of the sky has been a focus of ancient humans for tens of thousands of years in Europe and the middle east. Here are located the asterisms of Orions belt and the hyades, as well as the Pleiades. Researchers such as Michael Rappenglueck, frank Edge, and luz antequera congregado have identified the constellation taurus and the Pleiades among the paintings of Lascaux cave, france, dating back 16,500 years ago. 15 Additionally, rappenglueck asserts that a tiny tablet from Germany, carved of mammoth ivory and dating back at least 32,500 years, depicts the constellation Orion in the familiar guise of a narrow-waist male with outstretched arms and legs. 16 given such evidence, it is reasonable that the göbekli tepe people recognized Orion as a human figure, even as a hunter.

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For Enclosure d the central pillars are oriented approximately 7 east of south. Those for Enclosures c, b, and a are approximately 13 east of south, 20 east of south, and 35 east of south respectively. 13 These varying angles suggest the builders were observing stars and building new enclosures oriented progressively toward the east as they followed particular stars or star clusters over hundreds of years. What were the builders observing? This is a difficult question to answer, but we can hypothesize. On the morning of the vernal Equinox of circa 10,000 bce, before the sun rose due east at Göbekli tepe, the Pleiades, taurus, and the top of Orion were in view in the direction indicated by the central stones of Enclosure d, with Orions belt. 14 A similar scenario played out for the orientation of the central stones of Enclosure c essay in circa 9500 bce and for Enclosure b in circa 9000 bce. Enclosure a is oriented toward the Pleiades, taurus, and Orion on the morning of the vernal Equinox circa 8500 bce, but due to precessional changes, the entire belt of Orion no longer rose above the horizon before dawn broke. By about 8150 bce the belt of Orion remained below the horizon at dawn on the morning of the vernal Equinox. These dates fit well the timeframe established for Göbekli tepe on the basis of radiocarbon dating. The vernal Equinox is easily observed and noted, and since the beginning of recorded history has been an important marker, celebrated with festivities.

Additional, later and smaller, pillars and structures have been story partially uncovered both 20 to 30 meters north and about 80 meters west of the major area of circles, 12 and eighteen or more stone circles still under the earth have been identified. Enclosure d is located furthest north. To the southeast lies Enclosure c, and to the south of Enclosure d lies Enclosure b and finally. The enclosures are very close to each other, almost abutting. Each enclosure possesses a pair of tall central parallel pillars ringed by a circle of shorter pillars with later stonewalls between the pillars. If at some point the enclosures were covered over, they may have been entered from above; indeed, possible carved stone "portals" have been found that may have been set in a roof. The central pairs of pillars are oriented generally toward the southeast, as if forming sighting tubes toward the sky. The central pillars of Enclosure d include arms and hands, with the hands holding the belly or navel area, and it is clear that the anthropomorphic pillars are facing south. The orientations vary from enclosure to enclosure, however.

weathering and erosion essay

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Astronomy is often considered the earliest yet most sophisticated of the sciences. A particularly subtle astronomical phenomenon, the discovery of which is generally credited to hipparchus of Rhodes in the second century bce, 10 is the slow movement of the stars relative to the equatorial coordinate system. This is commonly referred to as the precession of the equinoxes. The entire cycle, with stars returning to their "starting points takes somewhat under 26,000 years. Some researchers suggest that precession was known to the ancient Egyptians and other early civilizations, and is reflected in myths worldwide. 11 Others dispute such assertions. I found evidence of precession at Göbekli tepe, adding another layer of sophistication to this remarkable site. The excavated portions of Göbekli tepe lie on the southern slope of a hill looking out to the southern skies. Thus far, the better part retrolisthesis of four stone circles (enclosures) has been excavated in an area measuring about 40 by 40 meters square.

And like my work on the Sphinx, the specialists are perplexed by göbekli tepe. Patrick symmes wrote in Newsweek, "But the real reason the ruins at Göbekli remain almost unknown, not yet incorporated in textbooks, is that the evidence is too strong, not too weak. The problem with this discovery, as Glenn Schwartz of Johns Hopkins puts it, is that it is unique. No other monumental sites from the era have been found. Before göbekli, humans drew stick figures on cave walls, shaped clay into tiny dolls, and perhaps piled up small stones for shelter or worship. Even after Göbekli, there is little evidence of sophisticated building." 9 In a nutshell, we have evidence of high culture and civilization circa 10,000 to 8,000 bce, but then an apparent decline or hiatus for thousands of years, until the "rise"  of civilization once again. A record of Precession at Göbekli tepe a hallmark of civilization is precise scientific observation.

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weathering and erosion essay

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Also from Göbekli tepe are perfectly drilled stone beads. And, according to Prof. Schmidt, while some of the biography stone pillars were set in the local bedrock, others were set into a concrete- or terrazzo-like floor. Looking only at style and quality of workmanship, one might easily suggest that Göbekli tepe dates between 30 bce. How wrong one would. Based on radiocarbon analyses, the site goes back to the period of 9000 to 10,000 bce, and was intentionally buried circa 8000 bce.

7 That is, the site dates back an astounding 10,000 to 12,000 years ago! This was supposedly the time of the brutish, nomadic, hunters and gatherers who, according to many academics, did not have the technology, governing institutions, or will to build structures such as english those found at Göbekli tepe. Clearly there is a disconnect between what conventional historians and archaeologists have been teaching all these years and the clear evidence on the ground. As Stanford University archaeologist Ian Hodder commented, göbekli tepe is, "unbelievably big and amazing, at a ridiculously early date huge great stones and fantastic, highly refined art Many people think that it changes everything It overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong." 8 like my re-dating of the Great Sphinx, göbekli tepe forces us to reconsider our antiquity.

People during that age were hunters and gatherers. They didnt build cities." 4 At the time i lacked any pottery shards. But I was sure of my science, and I persisted. Two decades later, we have something better than pottery shards, and even earlier than my conservative sphinx date of circa 50 bce (I now currently favor the older end of this range, or an even earlier date for the original Sphinx). Göbekli tepe dates from over 10,000 years ago. Better than Pot Shards A short drive from Urfa (alternatively sanlıurfa southeastern Turkey, atop a mountain north of the harran Plain, sits Göbekli tepe.


Klaus Schmidt of the german Archaeological Institute has been excavating the site.5 Recently i visited it for myself. At Göbekli tepe immense finely carved and decorated T-shaped limestone pillars, many in the range of two to five and a half meters tall and weighing up to an estimated 10 to 15 tons, stand in Stonehenge-like circles. The workmanship is extraordinary, with clear sharp edges that would do any modern mason proud. It may be a cliché, but I cannot help but think of the opening scene of the classic 19: a space Odyssey. A group of ape-like proto-humans discovers a giant monolith; influenced by it, they learn to use tools, leading to civilisation.6 Various pillars at Göbekli tepe are decorated with bas-reliefs of animals, including, foxes, boars, snakes, aurochs (wild cattle asiatic wild asses, wild sheep, birds (cranes. The carvings are refined, sophisticated, and beautifully executed. Not only are there bas-reliefs, but also carvings in the round, including a carnivorous beast, possibly a lion or other feline, working its way down a column, apparently in pursuit of a boar carved in relief below. In the round, carvings of lions and boars have been uncovered, now housed in the museum of Sanlıurfa, as is a life-sized statue of a man, which, though from Urfa, apparently dates to the göbekli tepe era.

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Immediately after my announcement of an older Sphinx, i was under attack. Archaeologist, carol Redmount (University of California, berkeley) was"d in the media, "Theres just no way that could be true.". The article continued, "The people of that region would not have had the technology, the governing institutions or even blood the will to build such a structure thousands of years before Khafres reign, she said." 2, the initial hoopla peaked in February 1992 at a "debate" . 3, as the new York times put it, "The exchange was to last an hour, but it juan spilled over to a news conference and then a hallway confrontation in which voices were raised and words skated on the icy edge of scientific politeness.". Egyptologist, mark lehner could not accept the notion of an older Sphinx, personally attacking me by labeling my research "pseudoscience.". Lehner argued, "If the Sphinx was built by an earlier culture, where is the evidence of that civilization? Where are the pottery shards?

weathering and erosion essay

Great Sphinx delivery of Egypt, conventionally dated to 2500 bce (the reign of Pharaoh Khafre actually has its origins in the 7000 to 5000 bce range, or possibly earlier. My announcement was done via a presentation at the October 1991 annual meeting of the geological Society of America (this was allowed only after a formal abstract, submitted with my colleague. John Anthony west, was accepted based on positive professional peer review). 1, i made my case utilizing scientific analyses, comparing erosion and weathering profiles around the Sphinx to the ancient climatic history of Egypt. In brief, the Sphinx sits on the edge of the sahara desert, a hyper-arid region for the past 5,000 years; yet the statue shows substantial rain-induced erosion. The original structure must date back thousands of years prior to 3000 bce (the head was re-carved in dynastic times). I had pushed the Great Sphinx, arguably the grandest and most recognizable statue in the world, back into a period when humanity was supposedly just transitioning from a hunter-gatherer economy to a sedentary life. People 7,000 or more years ago were still brutish and unsavory, at least by modern civilized standards. Certainly they were not carving giant statues (the Sphinx is about 20 meters tall by over 70 meters long) out of solid limestone bedrock.

of substantial structures, long-distance trade, and the slow and gradual evolution of complex societies. None of this happened overnight. It took thousands of years, and it was not until around 4000 to 3000 bce that true signs of high culture first appeared, such as fine artistry in decorative crafts, written records, scientific observations of the heavens, complex political organizations, and megalithic building projects. This level of achievement was reached in Mesopotamia, the nile valley, and the Indus Valley by the beginning of the third millennium bce. A well-known example is the rise of dynastic Egypt about 3200 to 3100 bce and the building of the Djoser pyramid circa 2630 bce. Stonehenge in England dates from the same period. Although accepted as dogma by many, this nice neat scenario may be completely wrong. Questioning Accepted History, back in 1991, i had the temerity to announce that the.

The most common image is one of warming small nomadic bands endlessly in pursuit of the next meal. Men hunted game while women and children gathered fruits, seeds, roots, shoots, insects, and other edibles. The height of technology was a finely worked stone knife blade or spear point; nets, baskets, and cordage were also put to good use. Permanent structures were superfluous, for the group never stayed in one place very long. Material goods were sparse as possessions had to be limited to those easily carried. Jewellery (perhaps beads, animal teeth, or shells strung on a cord) and personal decoration (body paint, tattoos) were prized. In colder climates appropriate clothing was fashioned from animal skins.

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March 22, 2013 from, newDawnMagazine, website, robert. D., is renowned for his work on re-dating the Great Sphinx. Based on his geological studies, he determined that the Sphinxs origins date prior to dynastic times. He has also focused his attention on the Great Pyramid and various other temples and tombs in Egypt, as well as studying similar structures around the world. Schoch is an author and coauthor of both technical and popular books, including the trilogy with. McNally: voices of the rocks: a scientist looks at Catastrophes and Ancient civilizations (1999 voyages of the pyramid builders: The True origins of the pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America (2003 and Pyramid quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the dawn of civilization. Website: story m, what were our ancestors like 10,000 or more years ago?


Weathering and erosion essay
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