Consider who the report is for and why it is being written. Check that you understand all the instructions or requirements, and ask your tutor if anything is unclear. Stage Two: Gathering and selecting information. Once you are clear about the purpose of your report, you need to begin to gather relevant information. Your information may come from a variety of sources, but how much information you will need will depend on how much detail is required in the report. You may want to begin by reading relevant literature to widen your understanding of the topic or issue before you go on to look at other forms of information such as questionnaires, surveys etc. As you read and gather information you need to assess its relevance to your report and select accordingly. Keep referring to your report brief to help you decide what is relevant information.
How to write a report
There is usually some misunderstanding concerning "references" and "bibliography." References best include those articles and other parts of the literature that are relevant to the problem which you refer to specifically. As you will see from journal articles, published research reports include only references and do not have a bibliography section). All reports need writer to be clear, concise and well structured. The key to writing an effective report is to allocate time for planning and preparation. With careful planning, the writing of a report will be made much easier. The essential stages of successful report writing are described below. Consider how long each stage is likely to take and divide the time before the deadline between the different stages. Be sure to leave time for final proof reading and checking. Stage One: Understanding the report brief. This first stage is the most important. You need to be confident that you understand the purpose of your report as described in your report brief or instructions.
It is in story this "Discussion" section that you should present your interpretation of the results obtained. You should give particular emphasis to any theoretical consequences of the results. You should also discuss any methodological considerations that you have found to be relevant. In considering the adequacy of the study as a test of the hypothesis, how- ever, it does not suffice to show that a host of things was varying in an uncontrolled manner. You must specify how these uncontrolled variables could affect the results favorably or unfavorably. You should also indicate in your discussion the implications of this study for future research and for evaluation of relevant theories. References when you refer to some existing work, you must always give proper acknowledgement by citing that work. See the apa publication Manual for the correct procedures for citing existing works.
Figures and tables should be concise and clear and. They and should be numbered and referred to by paper number in the text. A brief caption should be included describing the contents of the figure or table. The salient points brought over by each table or figure must also be stated in the text of the results section. The results of statistical analysis of the data are to be given in the body of the text and also in tabular form where tables will clarify the presentation. Such table should indicate the number of participants in each group (if there are different groups the mean value for each group or proportion performing in a particular fashion, and some measure of the variability of performance. Discussion, as indicated in the preceding section, a straightforward presentation of the results of the study is required.
Published research reports often assume that both reader and writer understand why certain aspects of the study procedure were conducted as they were. It is reasonable to assume that readers of technical articles have considerable background knowledge of the problems and methods in a given area. In this respect it would be well for you to depart from the standard format and to indicate why you did what you did. Why were your particular procedures required by the questions to be answered, or in what way did they control some unwanted variable or variables? Results, this section should present a description of the data collected in the study and the analysis or analyses performed on them. It is desirable to summarize the results in tabular or graphic form in addition to the verbal description. A table or figure can frequently communicate your results far more effectively than words. Raw data should not be included in the results section. I include an appendix for raw data, computations, etc.
Report writing, abstract (Summary) Information
Your reader is not concerned with your motivation. What he wishes to know is what contribution in terms of empirical knowledge, concepts, etc., the research offers him. You must explain or exhibit this information by relating your study to other pertinent work in the field of psychology. Methods, this section usually contains three parts, one describing the participants (subjects one describing the materials or apparatus employed in testing the hypothesis (e.g. Survey and one describing the procedure. It should be resume sufficiently detailed to permit duplication by any other competent investigator.
Equipment items should be described in detail only when the information is needed to indicate what has been done in terms that will be reliably understood. Details of procedure, technique, or instrumentation that have been adequately described by earlier investigators should not be described in details again, but references to the original sources should be cited. The description of the procedure should summarize each step in the actual execution of the study,. G., the instructions given to the participants, the method of informing the group or groups of participants (experimental and control groups for an experiment and the order in which the various materials/ instruments were administered. The criteria here are the same as before. The description should be written in terms that you can reasonably suppose are generally and reliably understood and in sufficient detail to permit duplication by other qualified equine investigators.
Introduction (Note: This section is not labeled). This is a statement of what led up to the study and includes as much background material as is needed to place the research question in its proper setting. The problem may follow naturally as the next question from a body of previous research, it may simply have suggested itself as an interesting phenomenon or it may follow as a deduction from a theory. It should be clear from the statements in the introduction what prior information is to be assumed in conducting the study and where the sources of this information are to be found. The study will necessarily deal with some matters that are speculative, and these should be indicated and stated in terms that can reasonably be supposed to be generally and reliably understood.
A common fault is the absence of a proper approach to the subject matter of the report. You are (or should be) writing for everyone who might at any time, be interested in the study and not for one or two people who presumably already know all about. You should not assume that your reader has any special knowledge of your study. Since your report should be relatively "timeless" phrases such as "a few moths ago" or "last week" should not be used. Do not include information based on personal experience which others cannot evaluate your personal reasons for conducting a particular study are not relevant. You may have been interested in the subject since you were a child, or you may be doing it only because it is required for this course.
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On." or "The influence. On" to reflect causation. F or correlational studies refer to the direction (and perhaps strength) of the relationships between variables,. "The direct relationship between self-esteem and successful academic accomplishments.". Abstract, a brief (about words) summary of the statement of the problem, procedure, results, and conclusions is to appear in this section. Do not include any new material that has not been covered elsewhere melisande in this report. Also, this is not the place to introduce a moral or cliché statement. A brief and accurate summary of the full report allows the potential reader to determine quickly whether his study is relevant to his interests, and therefore, whether he wants to spend the time and effort to read it in full.
It is essay important that you indicate the theoretical basis or the prior observations which suggested the study. Furthermore, the report should make clear in reasonable detail the manner in which the research was carried out; that is, what was done to manipulate (in the case of an experiment) and measure variables in the manner demanded by the problem under investigation. This means that the report must be sufficiently detailed so that someone else could duplicate the study. Finally, the report must state what results were obtained and what interpretation of these can be made. The sections into which a report is conventionally divided are described below. Every report should contain all of the sections. Title, a good title indicates the relationships among the variables studied. If it is an experimental study, use verbs such as "The effects.
forth in detail in the. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It is recommended that these guidelines be adopted in writing your own reports and be considered in evaluating reports that you read in the journals. These conventions are concerned with the organization of the report and the style of presentation. Report writing should be both brief and clear. An examination of articles in the journal of Experimental Psychology or the journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, which are available in the library, will give you a feeling for the style of writing that is most common. When writing the report of a scientific study, it is necessary that you include what is relevant to your problem.
You must include a definitive title and a short abstract. Length: The project report must be in apa style and no longer than three to four single space pages (1500 words) including true tables and figures (not including references). Note: the report must be submitted to sakai online as an attachment. Please submit report, single spaced (contrary to apa style). Original sources: you will be expected to find at least six original sources for your references. Secondary sources may be cited, but only rarely and only if the original is unavailable from the University of Maryland library system. Guide for writing reports: The principal means of scientific communication is the research report.
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Guide for writing experimental reports, psych table 308/309 guide for writing project report. Quality of spss project report, the important aspects in judging quality will be:. Development of the research question and literature review*. Reporting of results (apa style tables and figures). Drawing conclusions from the findings*. Quality of writing *This means integrating the literature (theories and opinions offering explanations for resolving conflicting research findings, and drawing reasonable conclusions based on your research hypotheses. Grammar/proofreading: It is imperative that the papers be grammatically correct and edited carefully.