The real success of the design lay in the fact that they had an unambiguous precise spec - the "Principles of Operation" manual for the ibm 360 computer. The intime experiment demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of online integrated text processing and indicates directions for future study. Introduction, there would be many uses for an online integrated text processing system. A university press, for example, may engage in demand publishing. Its database, originally prepared for typesetting, could be searched for material relevant to the subject of a proposed publication. The selected text could be examined and manipulated with a context editor and then composed for publication.
Annotated, paper - the Office of Digital learning &
This sentence must have read like a fantasy in 1970. "Conversational setting" may seem no review great novelty today, but then computers occupied entire large air-conditioned rooms and were tended by priests. The closest anyone got to a conversation was leaving a deck of keypunched cards in the input basket. "Textual data base" was also an outlandish idea, in an era when most of the keypunches were upper-case only. The experimental version of the system was developed on the ibm system/360 Model 67 using the cp-67 control program and cms operating system. The initial users were a program development group whose operations required preparation and revision of manuals, searching for references to specific topics, and automatic generation of indexes. The primary objective of the experiment was to observe the effects of interrelating the various text processing functions, rather than to measure performance. Cp-67 was an amazing breakthrough. Instead of writing a complex time-sharing operating system, they wrote a simple "hypervisor" that supported multiple concurrent emulations of ibm 360 hardware, so-called "virtual machines". You could then run the operating system of your choice in its own virtual machine.
On the one hand we were encouraged to build collegial relations, publish our research, and share information. On the other hand, ibm was laboring under a consent decree from an antitrust suit that, among other things, prohibited the announcement of a product until it was developed sufficiently that there was a high probability that it would ship. The company's concern for honoring the letter and spirit of the decree was such that any novel technology with a potential for becoming a product had to be resume kept confidential. (I suspect that commercial competitive considerations may have played a role in this policy as well.). The product potential of gml was recognized early on, and as a result we had to be careful of what we said and how we said. Fortunately, the primary focus of intime was the integration of text processing functions, so we had something we could report. Text processing encompasses the functions of editing, document storage and retrieval, and composition, all of which are present in varying degrees in the work of authors, publishers, and researchers. A system which integrates these functions in a conversational setting offers considerable flexibility in manipulating a textual data base. Note the dispassionate understatement in the last sentence, the result of Ted's careful tutelage in academic style.
Ted Peterson, who had been with ibm for a decade or more before either Ed Mosher or myself joined the company, was our store of experience - a guide through the maze of twisty passages (all different) of corporate and academic research. This was my second published paper. My first, published in the harvard journal of International Law, was entitled "a model Foreign Tax Credit Act for a developing Nation". There are dryer subjects than sgml! An online integrated text processing system has been implemented in an experimental version known as intime (INteractive textual Information Management Experiment). The work was done at ibm's Cambridge Scientific Center, one of a half-dozen small laboratories that existed at that time near major universities. The centers were operated by ibm's marketing arm, primarily as a vehicle for bolstering relations with academe through joint projects. However, the centers also did useful research, and "technology transfer" to a product division was a highly sought objective of every project. These dual goals led to a sort of institutional schizophrenia.
Volume 48, number 7 (July 1997). Goldfarb, information Management Consulting, this paper is a commentary - over a quarter-century after the fact - on the first published paper to suggest the need for (and hint at the existence of) what is now the Standard Generalized Markup Language. It was presented at the 33rd annual meeting of the American Society for Information Science in Philadelphia, october 15, 1970, and published in Volume 7 of the asis proceedings. The editors of this special isssue of jasis felt that that meeting was worth remembering here because of its hitherto unpublicized connection with the origin of sgml. I would like to add that it is also worth remembering because of its closing banquet, which featured an erudite and witty speech by a professor with two doctorates, a 70-piece balalaika orchestra, the entire Philadelphia mummers band (replete with banjos, saxophones, and feathered headdresses. I've spoken at some hundred conferences since then and none of them has even come close. Mosher, and Theodore. International Business Machines Corporation, cambridge, massachusetts, the authors of this paper were not, as one might expect, the same three people who invented ibm's non-standardized precursor Generalized Markup Language - gml. The "G" and "M" are represented, but ray lorie, who made perhaps the most significant contribution to the idea, did so in a matter of minutes in the capacity of friendly consultant and rarely participated actively in gml's development.
Annotated, glossary Essay research, paper
Is your class information at the beginning of the paper and aligned left? Is your title centered? Does the first line of of each works cited entry begin to the far left? Are all following lines (the second, third, fourth.) indented 4 spaces? Do you have page numbers? They should be located at the top of the page in the right hand corner.
Is your name on every page? It should be located within a header located on the top of the page in the right hand corner. Is your bibliography alphabetized? Have you used the correct format (apa, mla)? It should be noted that this checklist is not all encompassing, and that if you have any questions about generals what you should include in your annotated bibliography you should refer to you instructor or academic discipline's plum rules for citation. Further reading edit External Links edit evaluation Advanced Topics evaluation Rhetoric and Composition Advanced Topics. Sgml: The reason Why and the first Published Hint (C)1997 journal of the American Society for Information Science.
Mla annotation style besides providing a correct citation for the article intended for use in your research, each entry for an annotated bibliography, completed in mla format, can contain up to three paragraphs, that each serve a specific purpose. The first paragraph works to summarize the material in the article being annotated. While the second paragraph will attempt to provide an evaluation of the annotated text. Sometimes the first and second paragraph discussed here can be combined into one paragraph, depending upon the conciseness of the annotation. The final paragraph in an annotation in mla format describes how the article being annotated works specifically with your intended area of research.
This brief description only provides an example of how to set up a mla annotated bibliography entry; it should be noted that the overall purpose of an annotation entry is to provide a concise overview of the article be annotated and how it relates. Apa annotation style when creating an annotated entry for an annotated bibliography formatted in apa, each entry should contain two paragraphs. The first paragraph, much like an entry in mla format, should assess and summarize the article intended for research. While the second paragraph should work to evaluate the strengths of the article's method, presentation, and data analysis. What makes an annotated bibliography entry different in apa format than that of one in mla format is that in an apa annotated entry the importance of the source to your desired area of interest is not stated. The purpose of an apa annotation entry is to evaluate the credibility of the article, as opposed to its personal significance to you as a researcher. General layout Checklist for an Annotated Bibliography edit does your Annotated Bibliography follow these style cues? Are all lines of your bibliography double spaced? Have you included any extra line spacing?
Writing an, annotated, bibliography for a, paper
Introduction (If required beginning of your First Bibliographic metamorphosis Entry entries should be alphabetized by the first word in the entry each citation should be completed in accordance to your academic discipline's rule for citation. Annotation Styles edit, there are several styles of annotation, with two major styles being: mla style and apa style; your professor may require you to use one of them or another one specific to your field of study. Mla stands for the modern Language Association, and apa stands for the American Psychological Association. Both are used to emphasize different information. For instance, in the apa, psychology is the major interest so they emphasize dates since recent research tends to make older research obsolete. In contrast, mla emphasizes page numbers because specific articles disadvantages use the exact wordings of texts, which articles in psychology journals rarely. No matter what style your teacher requires, be sure to follow the guidelines for documenting your research. In terms of determining which annotation style to use in creating your annotated bibliography, you should refer to your instructor or even more broadly to your discipline of academic study. Different aspects of academia have different ways of citing sources for research, and it is important that you are aware of which form of citation your discipline uses prior to completing your annotated bibliography.
For instance: you may be asked to include an introduction explaining your research. Also, you may begin your first annotation on a new page. This again is a teacher preference or even more broadly a preference of your academic discipline. If you follow the layout below, you will be on your way. But make sure to ask your teacher or refer to your academic disciplines rules for citation prior to turning in your annotated bibliography. Your Name, instructors Name. Class Title/Section, calendar Date, title review of your Annotated Bibliography (This should be centered on the page).
If the source includes anything special (Diagrams, Charts,"s, good Pictures). You may want to mention if the source you are looking at is weakly written, biased to a point of view, or if it is lacking in any way. General Formatting of an Annotated Bibliography edit, you may have a professor ask for an Annotated Bibliography paper. The rules on an Annotated Bibliography layout are not set in stone. So make sure to ask your professor if they have any specific preferences or refer to your academic disciplines rules pertaining to citation of research.
Your annotation, which is a review, becomes a guide to help you locate the specific article or book you used before. Also, you might be reading a paper and notice a" that interests you, or that would help you in your own research. If the author of that paper has attached an Annotated Bibliography, you would be able to read information about the source, and to find out how this source could be of use to you in your own work. What is Generally Included in the Annotation? Edit, start your bibliography entry just like a normal works cited entry. At the end of the normal citation include: Between 2 to 4 sentences that summarize the sources main idea. Between 1 or 2 sentences that relate the article to your paper either indicating how that information is useful to your research or how the information will be used.
Annotated bibliography example for research paper
To do: Contents, what is an Annotated Bibliography? Edit, a bibliography is a list of books or resources that one creates and consults when preparing a research paper or project. An annotated bibliography includes both a works Cited entry (also known as a bibliography Entry) and a summary or critique of the source. The information given in the annotation will (1) summarize the information source and (2) Explain why this source is included in the bibliography. Imagine you are writing a paper that is similar in subject reviews to a paper you wrote a few years ago. You want to locate a specific article, but you can't remember which article from that paper is the one you are looking for. You have all the information to locate the article, but now you have to search through ten articles to find the correct one. By including an annotation in your bibliography, you won't have to locate every article again.