The exhibition seeks to grasp the two principal phasesthe harmonically based cosmic/musical life reform that held sway between 19the applied, psychedelic explosion of the material from 1960 onwardas precursors of a politicization of sexual liberation that to some extent began in the 1970s and. These precursors generated a rich and for the most part implicit aesthetic material that could be further utilized and expanded in the spirit of its implicit liberating tendencyfascinating material, but that also has to be emphatically refuted. Tony conrad does so in Slapping Pythagoras, where he depicts the attempt to base the world and music on a common cosmic and mathematical order as an anti-democratic tradition (which substitutes a theology of Numbers for the pragmatics of counting). Rainer Werner Fassbinder does so in Satansbraten (Satans Brew when he makes fun of the rites and rituals of the george circle as a sexually inhibited, petit bourgeois theologization of (gay) sexuality. In Particular, stefan george (18681933) idealized and idolized very young men, whom he sought to initiate into his circle. Many remained attached to it for decades and often saw themselves replaced by younger disciples.
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But the scandalous shortcut to higher consciousness represents a subversive and effective protest against the peace that official autonomous modernist art seemed to have made with the commitment to never again come anywhere near a use of the aesthetic. And yet the attempts of the psychedelic arts to extract trader immediate use values precisely from cosmic/magical representations and interventions are not necessarily anti-modernist. They run counter to a general idea of progress without abandoning. They continue to be concerned with improving conditions thatas in the newly rediscovered phenomenon of soviet cosmismcannot be conceived without the potentially metaphysical side of the material framework of human existence. By the 1970s at the latest, electronics in music and data transmission are regarded as both technologically advanced and also divine; this is the case for Stockhausen as well as for Kraftwerk and the drawings and designs of Emil Schult, who produced the groups album. Isa genzkens Weltempfänger (World Receivers) and Kraftwerks Radio-activity are seen by their authors very much as extensions and prostheses of the psychedelic and cosmic/harmonical endeavorseven if they seem to have lost sight of the profoundly societal dimension leadership of the idea of progress. And yet the latter can be recognized as a hiddenand therefore protected and stabledeeper level precisely in their aesthetics of an impossible use value, which is nonetheless a type of applicability. It is not the intention of this exhibition to document any of its historical examples exhaustively. Rather, it displays artworks and symptomatic artifacts that appeared to us as having been produced under their influence and then pursues particular motifs, sometimes on a whim and without always having good reasons for doing. These motifs include notions of ideal, direct communication through magic, technology, sexuality, or wireless transmission; images of Pythagorean and Platonic systems and graphic attempts to visualize totality; and explosions of color, especially involving the use of prefabricated implements outside the realm of painting (felt-tip pens.
This is the case not least because the life reform agendas of the movements we thematize also wished to close the gap between autonomous form and (erotic, social) application. For applied psychedelia is applied in another sense as well. The artworks, covers and posters, and light shows were intended to be immediately usable; they were supposed to be tools with whose helpand that of drugshigher states could be directly accessed. In taking a universities hands-on approach of this kind precisely in the spiritual realm, this psychedelic applied art became a twofold scandal for a hegemonic art that prided itself on its refusal to develop any immediate use values but also on its refusal to entertain such. This instrumental or tool-like approach of psychedelic art has a great deal to do with its prehistory in the sects discussed above. After all, the latter were also concerned with fashioning reality, including through architecture, agriculture, instrument making, etc. Access to tools, the legendary slogan of The Whole earth Catalogue, was also a fundamental principle for the earlier life-reformers. One can criticize psychedelic art for the fact that its enthusiasm for use value simply ignores the marxist critique of the commodity, just as one can criticize the sects described above for their religious lunacy.
When that happened, a shift began to take place from the cosmic order to its psychedelic explosion: a variety of cosmic motifs that now no longer functioned as rigorous notions of order serving as the basis for world views, or as legitimating discourses, but began. This escalation, which benefited from the experience with hallucinogens, the relaxation of sexual prohibitions, and a new market for youth culture, broke, albeit hesitantly, with heteronormative models. The boys, with their long hair, looked like girls; in many sects and groups but also in everyday life in the west (in the broadest sense other sexual identities were not only conceivable but were actually being lived out. This altered the conditions for artist gurus wishing to form groups and found new worlds. And yet the psychedelic images still betray their origins in the aesthetic contexts from which they are breaking free. It is true that, with the psychedelic movement on the one hand and the appearance of an overtly queer art on the other, the strict groups seem to dissolve or be swallowed up by sexually and musically liberated hippies. However, many motifs survived without simply being incorporated into the narratives of liberation, and not just in the artistic projects and developments that emerged from the complicated common history of mystical modernists and homofuturists. For us, the diffuse phenomenon of psychedelia is most immediately recognizable in the applied arts, as applied psychedelia: on posters, record covers, and in the aesthetics of everyday life.
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The next important book for Stockhausen was the esoteric American Urantia book, which is obsessed with order and organization and whose style is often similar to that of Das Glasperlenspiel. Supposedly dictated by higher beings, this book devotes thousands of pages to its account of a vast, highly structured universe, of which the earth and Biblical history are only a tiny part (but are not contradicted regulated by an intricately organized state made. Stockhausen became acquainted with the book in 1971, the same year as Sun ra, who also wished to found a new cosmic order based on music as the leader of a musical sect. Of course, there were a number of artistic movements and collectives in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that in one way or another thematized, pursued, or merely dreamed of sexual liberation essay and the suspension of heteronormative structures. But the groups on which we focus in this exhibition have one thing in common: their deviation from the hegemonic sexual order is closely connected with the above-mentioned notions of an ideal order, which were usually but not always derived from music, or with idealized. Most of these groups had their heyday between the late nineteenth century and the 1960s. However, quite recently one can notice the rise of a nostalgic, retrospective interest in their rigor and also in their modernity.
Politically and aesthetically, they often oscillate confusingly between a reactionary drift into mysticism and the treatment of art as a quasi-religion on the one hand and social and cultural utopias and gestures of liberation on the other. But precisely this idealization and repression of the utopian content within aesthetic cover stories also leads to a kind of preservation effect. In certain visual and auditory genres and elements that were later used in various ways, including psychedelically (such as mandalas, earth circles, globes, circles of fifths, baroque tonality, drones, and overtones motifs of awakening, expansion, and even liberation are contained, as it were, in coded. Without being immediately legible, they could have been stored for future use. At a certain point, these breaks with the western, bourgeois sexual orderwhether pursued by individual artists or in the context of quasi-religious artists groupsencountered the sexual liberation of the 1960s as it spread and reached new sectors of society, culminating in Stonewall and the ensuing.
George represented the preeminent link to French symbolism around 1900 and was for a moment close to mallarmé, while jahnn was well known as the author of taboo-breaking omnisexual (Jahnn blood-soaked Expressionist dramas and then as the german James joyce for his novels Perrudja and. Juxtaposed with these groups are a number of American groups and individual figures who took a very similar course, albeit in a different context and at a different stage of aesthetic and political development. We recognized parallels with American groups in which a form of musical and mathematical correctness seen as a better, more just order serves as the basis for (unpolitical or proto-political) movements, be it in the cosmic jazz of Sun ra or in the minimal music. Sun ra also led his band, the Arkestra, as a highly disciplined but also utopian sect; its members lived together from time to time like those of Jahnns community and were obliged to follow a strict protocol and obey the master. Like karlheinz Stockhausen, ra saw a close relationship between aesthetic, social, and technical progress, a relationship, however, that neither musician ultimately wished to cast in political terms but construed as mythical and religious.
Stockhausen also sought to control his musicians right down to the way they lived; he took an interest in their diet and often composed scores specifically for certain individuals and their physicality. Hans kaysers (18911964) harmonical philosophy of music attempted to derive eternal harmonic laws, whole-number proportions, from the scientific and mathematical knowledge of numerical ratios present throughout the universe, for which he claimed to find evidence from as far afield as quantum physics. It not only influenced Jahnn as an organ builder and his architectural plans for Ugrino; it also provided material for Hermann Hesses successful utopian novel of a male republic of scholars, das Glasperlenspiel (The Glass bead Game in which kayser also seems to appear. This great mans name in civil life can no longer be ascertained; by his time the cult of personality in intellectual fields had already been dispensed with. He lives on in history as Lusor (or also, joculator) Basiliensis (Magister Ludi, the Glass bead Game, trans. Richard and Clara winston). This novel in turn became one of the most important sources for Karlheinz Stockhausens idea of the music of the future and its role in society.
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At the same time, both groups adhered to strict protocols. They shared common ideals with regard to externalsclothing, architecture, and summary design. Among the youth movements and artists groups that existed around 1900, there are a number of other examples that might have been relevant in which sexual and artistic aspirations came together. This exhibition, however, is less concerned with completeness and historical reliability. Rather, we begin with starting points that struck us and follow them, led by similarity and association, to variants and related phenomena or next stages. In doing so, we are often guided by the notion that programs that were not yet articulated politically may, in their aesthetic implicitness, have something to say to later, more political topics of which the authors of those earlier programs were not yet aware. This also means that we are traveling in the slipstream of the para- and proto-political space that douglas Crimp has described as queer before gay. Both examplesthe george circle and Ugrinoare nearly untapped treasure troves of queer life reform and artistic projects from which a multitude of lines lead first to the neo-avant-gardes and liberation cultures of the 1960s but also into the present. Nevertheless, the two authors who stood at the center thesis of these groups are far from obscure in the german-speaking world.
Marcus Behmer, Stefan george, rainer Werner Fassbinder, hans Henny jahnn, lutz bacher, hans kayser, Ludwig Gosewitz, jordan Belson, hapshash and the coloured coat, The fool, rogério duarte, the red Krayola/mayo thompson, walter de maria, sigmar Polke, emil Schult, Isaac Abrams, john McCracken, pedro bell, kai. Artists who formulated strong, almost violent, and widely impactful and inspired claims, and who in this sense still bore out the myth of the artist hero, but did so always with the commanding need to form groups, families, or even monastic orders. They sought to change the world through language artisanal disciplines, life reform-related practices and strict internal rulesyet always in connection with liberating or covertly liberating intentions. We begin with a phenomenon in German literature in the early twentieth century: male collectives, often but not always homosexual but usually homosocial in character, that were interested in aesthetically and often magically based alternative world orders. Among these, we are here primarily addressing the special cases in which the supposed cosmic laws, the musical and mathematical harmonies of planetary orbits, and the numerical ratios that can be found in both nature and music serve as justifications for recasting interpersonal, societal, but. Ideas of Pythagoras or Kepler here created all-encompassing artistic equivalences which were meant to organize contemporary forms of coexistence as well as important artistic and scientific work, and which were also supposed to give rise to the society of the future. Many of these groups were politically predominantly reactionary, including the so-called george circle surrounding the poet Stefan george (18681933 while others, such as the community of Ugrino surrounding the organ builder and writer Hans Henny jahnn (18941959 were vaguely left-wing and pacifist. In the typically german philhellenic george circle, young men were intellectually and often sexually initiated by older members. Ugrino was more a polyamorous commune with a male couple at its center (Jahnn and the musician Gustav harms but in fact all of its members had sexual relationships with each other.
ausgerechnet der Verfechter der Langsamkeit als Satzformulierer hemmungslos der von ihm sonst so geächteten leidenschaft für Geschwindigkeit verfällt. Flinke gedankenassoziationen und wendige wortspiele liebt er wie ein Porschefahrer sein Gaspedal. Mehr als einmal gelingt es dem Philosphen, auf der Rennbahn seiner überlangen Sätze die schallmauer der Verständlichkeit zu durchbrechen. Es ist kein Zufall, dass zumindest im deutschsprachigen Diskurs mittlerweile meist nicht der irrlichtende virilio, sondern der solide hartmut Rosa herangezogen wird, wenn es um den Zusammenhang zwischen Geschwindigkeit und moderner Gesellschaft geht. paul Virilio: Der große beschleuniger. Aus dem Französischen von paul maercker. Passagen Verlag, wien 2012, 88 seiten, 11,90 Euro. Cosmic Communities: Coming Out Into outer Space. Homofuturism, Applied Psychedelia magic Connectivity an exhibition organized by diedrich diederichsen christopher Müller feat.
Seine Ursachenanalyse ist denkbar einfach: die weltwirtschaft ist am Zusammenbrechen, weil seit dem Start der Vernetzung der Märkte durch die city of London im Jahre 1987 (dem Big Bang des Program Trading) das Börsengeschehen zu schnell, um ehrlich zu sein, abläuft. Beim flash trading hat die börsenwelt endgültig die mauer der zeit überschritten: Hochleistungsrechner, die über die angriffskapazität eines Atomschlags verfügen, kalkulieren in Nanosekunden das gesamte börsengeschehen durch und ordern eigenständig Verkaufs- oder kaufaufträge. Da eine unbeeinflussbare maschinenzeit ohne Chrono-diversität (ohne auseinanderfaltung in Vergangenheit, gegenwart und zukunft) über Milliardenbeträge entscheidet, ist der Crash unvermeidlich. Die folge: die börsianer, die sich an eine außermenschliche zeit ausgeliefert haben, verlieren alles Vertrauen an die ihnen entgleitenden Märkte. Als letzter avatar der säkularisierung verbreitet sich ein Monoatheismus: der Unglaube an die zukunft der Weltwirtschaft. Seitdem dümpelt, wie wir täglich neu erfahren, die ökonomie im Credit Crunch vor sich hin. Neben dem Zusammenhang von Credit Crunch und Nanosekunden ist das zweite leitmotiv des Buchs der titelgebende large hadron Collider in Genf. Was beim flash trading der in Nanosekunden erfolgende Blitzkrieg auf den Aktienmärkten ist, ist im Hadronenkollidierer die beschleunigung von Partikeln bis nahezu lichtgeschwindigkeit (Virilio teilt mit Oswald Spengler, einem anderen Spezialisten in Sachen zivilisationsuntergang, das Talent, in heterogenen Phänomenen den gleichen epochentypischen Grundzug hervorscheinen. Das Risiko bei dieser zweiten Überschreitung der mauer der zeit ist ein Unfall inventory des Wissens: die unanschauliche der modernen Physik hat für Virilio nichts mehr mit Rationalität zu tun.
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Von christof forderer, paul Virilio ist der Erfinder der Dromologie: einer Kulturtheorie, die die geschichte der Menschheit unter dem Gesichtspunkt der diversen revolutionen der Beschleunigung neu schreibt. In den Anfangsjahren des Internets hatte er einst Entwicklungen, die sich gerade erst abzeichneten, antizipiert. Mittlerweile ist der französische Philosoph ein best recht alter Herr, und böse zungen behaupten, der einstige Prophet sei in seinen neueren Publikationen nur noch ein Epigone seiner selbst. Auch wenn das jetzt auf deutsch erschienene buch Der große beschleuniger sicherlich viele bekannte Thesen wiederholt und wie gewohnt eine kassandrahaft alarmistische Grundtonart wählt, bietet es eine interessante Anwendung des dromologischen Blicks auf Probleme der Jetztzeit: Finanzkrise, deregulierung der Arbeitswelt, Flüchtlingsströme, massentourismus, Krise der Demokratie. Reglos und lichtsensibel, das leitmotiv ist Virilios These, dass das nahezu erreichte paradoxe Endstadium der Geschichte der Beschleunigung ein Zustand des rasenden Stillstands sein wird. Nachdem die menschheit zunächst durch die domestizierung des Pferdes, dann durch die erfindung von Eisenbahn, auto und Flugzeug immer mächtiger wurde, wird die neueste Steigerung von Beschleunigung das Erreichen von Echtzeit dank der Übertragungstechnologien eine neue ohnmacht zur Folge haben. Nach jahrtausendelangem Beschleunigungsfortschritt droht eine totale regression: Reglos dasitzend und lichtsensibel auf das Geflimmer auf dem Bildschirm reagierend, wird der künftige mensch als Hybride von Pflanzen vegetieren. Exemplarisch für den Unfall der Unfälle, dem wir uns annähern, ist für Virilio die aktuelle finanzkrise.