There seems t _ be an incr _ _ _ _ in the u _ _ of alcohol, tob _ _ _ _ and other dr _ _ _ by students. Sch _ _ _ _ and colleges ha _ _ to try t _ deal with _ growing number o_ students victimized, eit _ _ _ directly or indir _ _ _ _ _ by drug u _ _ or drug dea _. 43 another form of the cloze test, "the modified c-test (the mc-test also known as "the x-test was invented by boonsathorn in 1987 (cited in boonsathorn, 1990,. For the mc-test, the first half of every second word is deleted (see example 3). In the mc-test, if the total number letters of the deleted word is an even number, the first half of this word will be deleted, such as "d i s a gree" (8 letters). For a word with an odd number of letters, its larger part will be deleted, such as "o t h er". According to boonsathorn (1987 the first half deletion in the mc-test compares with the c-test. His study reports that the mc-test is more difficult and discriminates better than the c-test.
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The findings reveal that the nc-test is reliable to assess the English language proficiency of these Thai mathayomsuksa six students. As far as this researcher has been able to establish, there has been no research investigating the use of the nc-test for non-native university students in Thailand. So the present study is designed to examine the similarities and the differences in using the c-test and the nc-test in measuring the English language proficiency of first-year Thai undergraduate students. Example 2: The essay c-test and the nc-test. The c-test, many foreigners find that Thailand is a very pleasant place to have a holiday. They disc _ _ _ _ that th _ _ _ are ma _ _ interesting thi _ _ _ to d _ and t _ see. Th _ _ say th _ _ the bea _ _ _ _ are cl _ _ _ and t _ _ scenery i _ beautiful. Ma _ _ say th _ _ the hot _ _ _ are exce _ _ _ _ _ and n _ _ too expe _ _ _. They exper _ _ _ _ _ with diff _ _ _ _ _ kinds o _ Thai fo _ _ that i _ tastes deli _ _ _. There is a dark shadow over schools and colleges where students are now facing the enormous problem of drugs.
The construction of the c-test is based on the same principle as that of the cloze test; however, only the second half of every second word is deleted as can be seen in Example. In the c-test, if the deleted word contains an even number of letters, the second half of this word will be deleted, such as "exper i e n c e" (10 letters). For a word with an odd number of letters, its larger part must be deleted, such as "th e r e" (5 letters). Moreover, many research studies indicate that the c-test is more effective and more reliable than the original cloze (Connelly, 1997; Dörnyei katona, 1992; Klein-Braley, 1985, 1997 and yet, dörnyei and Katona (1992) report that the c-test is too difficult for non-native students studying a target. As a result, thesis Thongsa-nga (1998) adopted the original c-test to make it suitable for Thai students studying English as a foreign language. Imitating the c-test construction, Thongsa-nga (1998) proposed "the new c-test (the nc-test by deleting the second half of every third word in order to provide more clues for the non-native test takers, as can be seen in Example. According to the investigation of Thongsa-nga (1998 the nc-test is employed as a proficiency test for non-native students at a secondary school level.
Then put /a /an or /the/ in each blank where necessary. People today are quite astonished by 1 rapid improvements in medicine. Doctors are becoming more specialized, and new drugs are appearing on 2 market daily. At 3 same time, 4 people are dismayed by 5 inaccessibility of doctors when they are needed. Whereas doctors' fees are constantly on 6 rise, 7 quality of medical care has reached 8 abysmal low. 234) (Adapted from Cohen, 1994,. 234) "The c-test one of the new cloze tests, was constructed by raatz and Klein-Braley (1981) in order to see if it could be more effective than the original cloze tests in measuring the students' English language proficiency.
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In addition, some studies (Aitken, 1977; Oller conrad, 1971; Oller, for 1979; Stubbs tucker, 1974) indicate that the cloze test is an effective instrument which is reliable and valid to measure English language proficiency. But the different deletion rates have an effect on the validity and the measurement of the cloze test (Alderson, 1979, 1980, 1983, 2000). Klein-Braley (1997) adds that the deletion rates used in cloze tests require long passages. If a cloze test with the deletion of every fifth word provides 50 items, the text length should be at least 250 words (Oller, 1979). This problem has led to the development a new form of the cloze test which is called the c-test. Example 1: Rational and random cloze procedures.
Random cloze, fill in the missing words, people today are quite astonished by the rapid improvements in medicine. Doctors 1 becoming more specialized, and 2 drugs are appearing on the 3 daily. At the same time, 4 are dismayed by the inaccessibility 5 doctors when they are needed. 6 doctors' fees are constantly on 7 rise, the quality of medical 8 has reached an abysmal low. (Adapted from Cohen, 1994,. Rational cloze, choose a/an/the or no article at all.
However, cloze tests are reported to be less time consuming, easier to score, and more reliable in measuring students' English language proficiency (Oller, 1979). Table 1: Discrete-point approach and integrative approach (Based on Jitendra rohena-diaz, 1996; McNamara, 2000). Approach Focus Advantages Disadvantages, discrete-point a single part of language - economical and quick to - overemphasizes can be tested separately. Score correctness and structures - suitable for assessing certain - cannot measure language capabilities communicative language skills, integrative measures various skills - suitable to assess both - time-consuming and tends at the same time and productive and receptive skills to be expensive views language. difficult to score.
The cloze test was initiated by taylor (1953, cited in Oller conrad, 1971). Originally, there were two kinds of cloze tests: a rational cloze and a random cloze (see example 1). The former refers to the deletion of specific types of words in a selected passage, such as prepositions or articles. The latter deals with a consistent deletion of every nth word, such as every fifth or seventh word. The student's task is to fill in the deleted part in the cloze passage. Cloze tests can measure grammatical structure, written expression and vocabulary as well as reading comprehension (Steinman, 2002).
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In language testing, discrete-point tests emphasize language form rather than language use (McNamara, 2000). However, the discrete-point test results focusing on a single language component are inadequate to determine the student's language proficiency (Jitendra rohena-diaz, 1996). As a consequence, oller (1979) suggests that teachers should construct language tests using the integrative approach instead. In the integrative approach, the language teachers view language as a whole, emphasizing both productive and receptive skills (Brown, water 1996; Hughes, 2003; McNamara, 2000). Integrative tests, such as cloze, dictation, writing an essay, and interview, can measure several skills simultaneously (Brown, 1996; Hughes, 2003). Moreover, integrative tests are suitable for assessing language proficiency and communicative skills (Brown, 1996; McNamara, 2000). McNamara (2000) contends that integrative tests take a lot of time to construct and score, as shown in Table.
These tests can be given in the disadvantages middle or at the end of the program (Hughes, 2003; McNamara, 2000). (3) diagnostic Tests are established to analyze the students' strengths and weaknesses in the learning process (Brown, 1996; Hughes, 2003). These tests are conducted at the beginning of the program (Brown, 1996). (4) Placement Tests are focused on screening the students to see whether they can study in a program and grouping the students in the same level of language proficiency (Hughes, 2003). Hence, the results of these tests will enable the teachers to accurately place the students entering any institution or program (Bachman palmer, 1996). In addition to a clear understanding of the functions and the characteristics of language tests, language teachers have to understand the construction of those tests. There are two approaches which have an influence on test construction: the discrete-point approach and the integrative approach (Hughes, 2003). For the discrete-point approach, language teachers view each language component separately, measuring one language skill at a time, such as testing grammar or vocabulary (Brown, 1996; McNamara, 2000).
The test results enable the students to develop their performance in language learning effectively. In addition, it is very important to select the most suitable language tests which respond to the specific goals of teaching. Language teachers should also understand the functions and the characteristics of the language tests thoroughly. Many practitioners and researchers in language testing (Bachman palmer, 1996; Brown, 1996; Hughes, 2003; McNamara, 2000) categorize four kinds of language tests based on the test purposes and functions as follows: (1) Proficiency tests are designed to measure general language skills, including speaking, listening, reading. In addition, proficiency tests generally help teachers to "set up entrance and exit standards for a curriculum" (Brown, 1996,. For instance, the test of English as a foreign Language (toefl) and International English Language testing System (ielts) are currently used by many universities where English language proficiency is required. (2) Achievement Tests are aimed at the degree of learning or how much progress the students have made (McNamara, 2000). So achievement tests are directly relevant to the goals of learning and instruction.
Despite the fact that I can read English articles universities fluently, i am afraid of talking with other foreign people, since my sentences all have grammar mistakes, and these will make other people feel strange and hard to understand, so i seldom communicate with other people. For the reason, i have decided to solve my problems with speaking. For example, i answer my teachers questions energetically, and even though my answer is wrong sometimes, i still try to make a statement. Gradually, i find my speaking ability is better than before, and this makes me want to endeavor continually. To cut a long story short, i know my reading is greater than my speaking, and determined not only to maintain my strengths, but also to improve my shortcomings. Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, introduction.1 Background and Rationale of the Study. Language assessment is an instrument for language teachers to identify the students' strengths and weaknesses in language learning, to place the student into a program and to measure the use of English in four basic skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking).
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My strengths and weaknesses in English All people have their own strengths and weaknesses in English. Im good at reading, but I do not have enough confidence in my speaking ability, although I try hard to practice now. In fact, i learned English when I was nine years old. At essay the very beginning, English was just like a new world for me, since Chinese literature is really different, so i learned grammar and vocabulary carefully, earnestly. Now, its joyful for me to study at San Marino high school, and I desire to get a good score in English. In the past, i usually did reading practice when I lived in Shanghai. For instance, i read one English book with my classmates per month, then my teacher would give us a quiz which about that books details, and the quiz could prove whether we understand those stories completely. This example explains why i think i do well in reading. Beyond that point, i lacked practice in speaking.